Category Archives: Books

Talks, Lectures, and Workshops. What is the Difference?

group learning

I am about to go on a mini speaking tour and in preparation I am skimming Scott Berkun’s “Confession of a Public Speaker.” I like this book, but while reading it I realized that I will be giving two different types of “speeches”. Let’s call them talks and workshops, and even though in both cases the subject will be Stan, the audience’s expectations will be different and my presentation must reflect those differences. In particular, Scott’s book is a lot more relevant to talks than workshops.

Most inexperiences speakers assume that the people who come to their talks want to learn something and some people do have that expectation, but those are usually inexperienced consumers of talks. The truth is that it is very unlikely that you will learn something during a talk. Learning is a hard and active process and it is not going to happen by passively absorbing sound and light waves in a reclining position.  The most realistic goals for a talk is to inspire people to learn more about the subject. This is a difficult task for the presenter, but if you want to know how to do it well, I highly recommend Scott’s book.

A workshop is a different animal. As the name suggests, the participants will be working alongside the presenters and in so doing are hoping to come away with enough initial knowledge to jump start their own exploration. People who attend the workshop have already been inspired to learn more and the bar is therefore higher than during a talk. So what are the important attributes of a good workshop?

To think about that, image you are taking a technical class at a University. You are listening to a lecture. Are you at a talk or at a workshop? The listening part gives it away. Most likely you are at an uninspiring talk that should instead be a workshop. In order for the workshop to go well, here is my short of list of requirements:

  1. Participants should have the required background at the right level of abstraction
  2. If this is a computing workshop, participants already installed and tested the required software
  3. Presenters have designed a series of exercises that gradually guide the audience through a set of hands on tasks each illuminating a different part of the subject
  4. Participants have a chance to discuss the problem and their solutions with each other and with the instructors
  5. There is a mechanism for the immediate feedback that tells the instructors if the majority have mastered the task

As a presenter, I can not control 1 and 2, but I must make it easy for people to assess their level of knowledge and software installation instructions must be clear.

Creating exercises is very time consuming, but I believe necessary for workshop style learning. Time for discussions can be weaved into the exercises and the output of the exercises can be shared with the rest of the class. Which brings me to the feedback mechanism, which is perhaps the most often overlooked aspect of the workshop.

I don’t have much experience with a feedback system during workshops, but I have used live surveys during talks and they work really well. For computing workshops, I would like to experiment with live code editors, where participants have a chance to post their code, their questions, and the error messages to the shared workspace. This would only work for moderate size groups, but I it seems to me that workshops should only be conducted in relatively small groups (say 50 people or fewer).

If you have any pointers on how to make the workshop experience better, feel free to post them in the comments.

 

Thoreau: Thoughts on his Indictment and Defense

henry-david-thoreau1

I never read Walden, not in its entirety anyway. I read most of the first chapter. It was dreadful. I still remember struggling to keep up with the narrative and wondering why is this such a big deal. Overall, I love the message of the simple life, civil disobedience, and living as one with nature. I do not love the apparently hypocritical obsession with seclusion and the disdain for all humanity. But this, of course, is a very shallow view of Thoreau. But then again, I do not have the patience to study him deeply. Fortunately, Kathryn Schultz and Jedediah Purdy do and offer an indictment of the man and somewhat halfhearted defense.

I really enjoyed reading both of these, but perhaps not surprisingly I found the indictment more convincing. The defence goes something like this. Sure, Thoreau was a hypocrite and an asshole, but we should not blame the message for the messenger (i.e. ad hominem or an opposite of blaming the messenger) even though in this case it happens to be the same person. I can get behind this argument. In science and in business there were and surely are lots of arrogant assholes, who nevertheless made important contributions. John Nash, despite a very favorable portrayal in the movie Beautiful Mind (the book is much less flattering), was not a very nice man. Steve Jobs was no sweetheart either. And so on. So, is Thoreau’s message important enough to stand on its own? That I am not qualified to answer, but a contrarian and anti-authoritarian in me wants to believe it that it is.

Thanks to Bryan Lewis for pointing me to these articles on his web page.

First Two Weeks of Writing

Jacki and I just submitted the first two chapter to our publisher, so I would like summarize early lessons learned (actually we submitted one chapter, but the editor decided to break the chapters in half; a decision that we fully support.)  The chapters includes material on programming style (from R’s point of view), introduction to functions and functional programming, some information on S4 classes mostly from user’s perspective, vectorizing code, debugging and various methods of data access including web scraping and Twitter API.

First the obvious.  We underestimated the amount time required to produce the content.  No surprises there.

We spent too much time wrestling with the outline.  Outlining seems to work well when I know my own writing style, but not so well otherwise.  At some (earlier) point we should have just started writing and figured out the detailed chapter structure as we went along.  I suspect this will change as we get deeper into the material, but only time will tell.

What does need to be planned is the immediate section.  For me it helps to have all the code written and all the visuals produced prior to starting writing.  When I tried writing code on the fly, I struggled to make any meaningful progress.

Lastly, it would have really helped if we read each other’s sections more carefully both in terms of synchronizing content and writing style.  I hope that the final product does not read like the book was written by two people.

Onto Chapter 2.

 

Getting Ready to Write a Book

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My co-author, Jacki Buros, and I have just signed a contract with Apress to write a book tentatively entitled “Predictive Analytics with R”, which will cover programming best practices, data munging, data exploration, and single and multi-level models with case studies in social media, healthcare, politics, marketing, and the stock market.

Why does the world need another R book?  We think there is a shortage of books that deal with the complete and programmer centric analysis of real, dirty, and sometimes unstructured data.  Our target audience are people who have some familiarity with statistics, but do not have much experience with programming.  Why did we not call the book Data Science blah, blah, blah…?  Because Rachel and the Mathbabe already grabbed that title! (ok, kidding)

The book is projected to be about 300 pages across 8 chapters. This is my first experience with writing a book and everything I heard about the process tells me that this is going to be a long and arduous endeavor lasting anywhere from 6 to 8 months.  While undertaking a project of this size, I am sure there will be times when I will feel discouraged, overwhelmed, and emotionally and physically exhausted.  What better vehicle for coping with these feelings than writing about them! (this is the last exclamation point in this post, promise.)

So this is my first post of what I hope will become my personal diary detailing the writing process.  Here is the summary of the events thus far.

  • A publisher contacted me on LinkedIn and asked if I wanted to write a book.
  • Jacki and I wrote a proposal describing our target market, competition, and sales estimates based on comparables.  We developed an outline and detailed description of each section.
  • We submitted our proposal (to the original publisher and two other publishers) and received an approval to publish the book from Apress’ editorial board. (Apress was not the original publisher.  More on that process after the book is complete.)

We set up a tracking project on Trello (thanks Joel and the Trello team), created a task for every chapter, and a included a detailed checklist for each task.

We have not completed all of the data analysis required for the book, so this is going to be an exercise in model building as well as in writing.  If you have any advice about how to make the writing process better or if you think we are batshit crazy, please, post in the comments.

I hope to write a book that we can be proud of.  We have a great editorial team and a technical reviewer who is kind of a legend in the R/S world.  They will remain anonymous for now, but their identities will be revealed as soon as they give me permission to do so.

I am looking forward to learning about the writing process, about statistics, and about myself.  Let the journey begin.

Updike’s Rabbit, Poincare, and the Art of Honest Writing

Cover of "Rabbit, Run"

Cover of Rabbit, Run

As I am reading Rabbit, Run, I am slowly recognizing the literary genius of John Updike and I can not help but to draw parallels to the artists of the second kind — mathematicians.  Updike does not use the tricks of literary construction that are so prevalent in the popular literature and modern blog writing.  There is nothing wrong with clever literary construction of course.  It makes the pages turn, it draws you in and leaves you asking for more.  If you have read John Grisham’s Time to Kill (his first and best novel, I think), you know what I am talking about.  The problem is that this kind of prose gets tiring after a while as you sort of feel like the author is consciously tricking you.

Not so with Updike.  His storyline is quite ordinary as are his characters.  He does not leave you hanging at the end pages and paragraphs.  He simply tells.  The beauty of his writing, it seems to me, is that the prose itself is so cleverly nuanced, yet so vivid, that it infuses extraordinary qualities into ordinary events and actors.  For example, from Rabbit, Run, describing a foreplay with a plump prostitute:

As swiftly, he bends his face into a small forest smelling of spice, where he is out of all dimension, and where a tender entire woman seems an inch away, around a kind of corner.  When he straightens up on his knees, kneeling as he is by the bed, Ruth under his eyes is an incredible continent, the pushed-up slip a north of snow.

When reading Updike, the reading itself is an incredible experience, a total escape into the Updike dimension that is as insightful as it is unique.  This kind of prose seems completely out of reach for mere mortals who need to resort to literary tricks.

Cover of "The Value of Science: Essential...

Cover via Amazon

I get a similar feeling when reading Henri Poincare’s The Value of Science (in English translation) in that his understanding of mathematics is so deep that it feels almost untouchable, yet he simply tells without the drama of other popularizers of science like say Hawking (a brilliant man) or Mlodinow (also no slouch.) Not to be outdone by the literary types, Poincare’s narration is so beautiful that it makes me want to learn French just to read him in the original.  Here is Poincare on the nuances of Number Theory:

He is a savant indeed who will not take is as evident that every curve has a tangent; and in fact if we think of a curve and straight line as two narrow bands, we can always arrange them in such a way that they have a common part without intersecting

And here he is again on the scientific motivation.

The scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful.  If nature were not beautiful, it would not be worth knowing, and if nature would not be worth knowing, life would not be worth living.

It was Poincare who noted that:

A scientist worthy of his name, above all a mathematician, experiences in his work the same impression as an artist; his pleasure is as great and of the same nature.

The curious intersection of art and science has been noted by many.  The fact that science has its own aesthetic beauty is not a byproduct of the scientific method.  As Poincare so eloquently points out, it is the reason for its existence.

A Better Way to Learn Applied Statistics, Got Zat? (Part 2)

Earning a PhD for DummiesIn the second semester of grad school, I remember sitting in a Statistical Inference class watching a very Russian sounding instructor fast forward through an overhead projected PDF document filled with numbered equations and occasionally making comments like: “Vell, ve take zis eqazion on ze top and ve substitude it on ze butom, and zen it verk out.  Do you see zat ?”  I did not see zat.  I don’t think many people saw zat.

In case I come off as in an intolerant immigrant hater, let me assure you that as an immigrant from the former Soviet block, I have all due respect for the very bright Russian and non-Russian scientists who came to the United States to seek intellectual and religious freedoms.  But this post is not about immigration, which incidentally is in need of a serious reform.  This is about an important subject, which on average is not being taught very well.

This is hardly news, but many courses is Statistics are being taught by very talented (and sometimes not so talented) Statisticians who have no aptitude or interest in the teaching method.  But poor instructors are not the only problem.  These courses are part of an institution, an institution which is no longer in the business of providing education.  Universities predominantly sell accreditation to students, and research to (mostly) federal government.  While I believe that government sponsored research should be a foundation of a modern society, it does not have to be delivered within the confines of a teaching institution.  And a university diploma, even from a top school (i.e. accreditation), is at best a proxy for your knowledge and capabilities.  For example, if you are a software engineer, Stack Overflow and GitHub provide a much more direct evidence of your abilities.

With the cost of higher education skyrocketing, it is reasonable to ask if the traditional university education is still relevant?  I am not sure about Medicine, but in Statistics the answer is a resounding ‘No.’  Unless you want to be a Professor.  But chances are you will not be a professor, even if you get the coveted PhD.

So for all of you aspiring Data Geeks, I put together a table outlining Online Classes, Books, and Community and Q&A Sites that completely bypass the traditional channels. And if you really want to go to school, most Universities will allow you to audit classes, so that is always an option. Got Zat?

Online Classes Books Community / Q&A
Programming Computer Science Courses at Udacity. Currently Introduction to Computer Science, Logic and Discreet Mathematics (great for preparation for Probability), Programming Languages, Design of Computer Programs, and Algorithms.

For a highly interactive experience try Codecademy.

How to Think Like a Computer Scientist ( Allen B. Downey)

Code Complete (Steve McConnell)

Stack Overflow
Foundational Math Singel Variable Calculus Course on Coursera (they are adding others; check that site often)

Khan Academy Linear Algebra Series

Khan Academy Calculus Series (including multivariate)

Gilbert Strang’s Linear Algebra Course

Intro to Linear Algebra (Gilbert Strang)

Calculus, an Intuitive and Physical Approach (Morris Kline)

 

Math Overflow
Intro to Probability
and Statistics
Statistics One from Coursera. This course includes an Introduction to R language.

Introduction to Statistics from Udacity.

Stats: Data and Models (Richard De Veaux)

 

Cross Validated, which tends to be more advanced

 

Probability and Statistical
Theory
It is very lonely here…

 

Introduction to Probability Models(Sheldon Ross)

Statistical Inference (Casella and Berger)

Cross Validated
Applied and Computational
Statistics
Machine Learning from Coursera.

Statistics and Data Analysis curriculum from Coursera.

Statistical Sleuth(Ramsey and Schafer)

Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel Models (Gelman)

Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning (Chris Bishop)

Elements of Statistical Learning (Hastie, Tibshirani, Friedman)

Stack Overflow especially under the R tag

New York Open Statistical Programming Meetup, try searching Meetups in your city

Bayesian Statistics Not to my knowledge, but check the above mentioned sites. Bayesian Data Analysis (Gelman)

Doing Bayesian Data Analysis (Kruschke)

 

I dont know of any specialized sites for this. (Opportunity?)